October 13, 2021 by eklose
Interest in the use of voluntary agreements (SAAs) as an instrument of environmental policy is growing. This article determines, using a simple template, whether PDOs are likely to lead to effective environmental protection. We examine cases where polluters are led to participate either by a substantive threat of mandatory controls (the “stick” approach) or by cost-sharing subsidies (the “carrot” approach). The results indicate that the overall impact on environmental quality could be positive or negative, depending on a number of factors, including the allocation of bargaining power, the magnitude of the underlying threat and the social cost of the funds. Innes, R., &Sam, A. (2008). Voluntary pollution reduction and enforcement of environmental legislation: an empirical study on the 33/50 programme. Journal of Law and Economics, 51(2), 271-296. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2003).
Voluntary Approaches to Environmental Policy: Effectiveness, Effectiveness and Use in Policy Mixers. Paris: OECD Environment Directorate. Kerret, D., &Tal, A. (2005). Greenwash or Green Gain? Predict the success and evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary environmental agreements. Penn State Law Review, 14(1), 31-84. Energy Information Administration (EIE). (1995). Electricity Generation and External Influences on the Environment: Case Studies. Doe/EIA-0598 report. Washington, DC: U.S.
Department of Energy. Rivera, J., Oetzel, J., deLeon, P., &Starik, M. (2009). Business reactions to environmental and social protection policy: towards an analytical framework. Political Science, 42,1, 3-32. To this end, the Ministry of Energy, with the support of the World Bank, commissioned the main actors in the sector to form the Environment Committee for the Electricity Sector (Comité Ambientale del Sector Eléctrico), which developed a series of sectoral guidelines on environmental management (Concha 2007). The report leads to the absence of functional works councils for va management, clear environmental performance bases, clearly defined environmental performance indicators, MAVDT support, project financing, monitoring mechanisms, access to technical and economic information, incentives for compliance with agreements, management of commitments in the VA and staff continuity, both in the regulatory institutions and in the undersigned company. Delmas, M., &Mazurek, J. (2004). A perspective of transaction costs on the negotiated agreements: the case of the American EPA XL program.
In A. Baranzini & P. Thalmann (Eds.), Freiwillige Ansätze zum Klimaschutz: Eine ökonomische Bewertung von private-public Partnerships. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. Esterling Lara, A. (2002). Evaluación y Perspectivas de los Convenios de Concertación para una Producción más Limpia en Colombia. Aplicación de un Modelo de Evaluación Estratégica a los Convenios de Concertación [Evaluation and prospects of Colombian clean production agreements].
Final report to MMA. Bogotá. Blackman, A., Uribe, E., van Hoof, B. et al. Voluntary environmental agreements in developing countries: the Colombian experience. Policy Sci 46, 335-385 (2013). doi.org/10.1007/s11077-013-9176-z There are cases where voluntary approaches are the only policy option available. .