December 18, 2020 by eklose
The Spanish people and the indigenous descendants of the precolonial nobility were part of the upper class, and they were subdivided into other classes: the peninsulas, the Creoles and the Principala. The peninsulas were people born in Spain, but who lived in the Philippines. The Creoles, or Criollo humans, were Spaniards born in the colonies. Custosia was a hereditary class of local Indians, descendants of precolonial datus, rajah and nobility, obtaining special rights and privileges such as positions within local government and the right to vote, although they are inferior to the peninsulas and islands of social reputation. Many members of the Philippine revolution belonged to the Principalia class, such as Jose Rizal. Although the peninsulas and Creoles enjoyed the same social power, since they both belonged to the upper class, the peninsulas considered themselves socially superior to the Creoles and indigenous princes.  As in the terror of 1872, the colonial authorities made several arrests and used torture to identify other Katipunan members. :31 Although they did not participate in the secessionist movement, many of them were executed, especially Don Francisco Roxas. Bonifacio had falsified their signatures in Katipunan documents, hoping that they would be forced to support the revolution. This manifesto is for all of you.
It is absolutely necessary that we stop as soon as possible to resist the unsenamed sons of the country who are now suffering brutal punishment and torture in prisons and, therefore, let all the brothers know that Saturday 29th of the current month will begin the revolution, in accordance with our agreement. To this end, it is necessary for all cities to rise at the same time and attack Manila at the same time. Anyone who obstructs this sacred ideal of the people will be considered a traitor and an enemy, unless he is sick; or not be physically fit, in which case it will be judged in accordance with the rules we have adopted. Mount of Liberty, August 28, 1896 – ANDRÉS BONIFACIO The Tejeros Convention was created to settle the leadership dispute. This assembly of officials was to unite the two factions and elect officers for the revolutionary government. After a makeshift election, Bonifacio lost to Aguinaldo and the leadership was entrusted to him. As fighting continued, the colonial government, which the United States established in the Philippines in 1900 under future President William Howard Taft, launched a pacification campaign known as the “politics of attraction.” This policy, designed to attract important elites and other Filipinos who did not accept Aguinaldo`s plans for the Philippines, has allowed for a high level of autonomy, introduced social reforms and implemented economic development plans.